Other Prajñāpāramitā · Sanskrit Texts

Pañcaviṃśatisāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra (Gilgit Ms.)

A folio from the Gilgit Manuscript of Pañcaviṃśāti-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra

What follows is my transcription of the Gilgit Manuscript of Pañcaviṃśāti-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra based on

Karashima, S., et al. (2016) Mahāyāna Texts: Prajñāpāramitā Texts (1). Gilgit Manuscripts in the National Archives of India Facsimile Edition Volume II.1. The National Archives of India and The International Research Institute for Advanced Buddhology, Soka University, Tokyo.

The manuscript is written on birch bark cut to resemble palm leaves. It is ca 46 x 13 cm. Each folio has writing on both sides, with eleven lines of text.

The section below is from Chapter Three of the Sūtra, and covers folios 20 verso – 22 verso (a little over 5 folios). The passage quoted in the Heart Sutra is in red, the whole passage in black, and parts outside the passage concerned in grey. This shows that the quoted passage is relatively small compared to about a folio or one fifth of the whole.

In completing this transcription I consulted the version by Stefano Zacchetti online in the GRETIL collection. I haven’t done a detailed comparison, but I believe there are one or two minor differences. I have worked from a better reproduction and I’m confident of my reading.

The importance of this transcription is that it gives us an idea of what the Pañcaviṃśati would have looked like in the 7th Century. There are also some 18th-19th Century manuscripts that have been published by Kimura. This enables us to compare this Sanskrit text with the Sanskrit Heart Sutra. As we can see the Heart Sutra contains a paraphrase of this text, consistent with first having been translated into Chinese and then back into Sanskrit by someone unfamiliar with the idioms of the Sanskrit Prajñāpāramitā literature. This confirms that the Heart Sūtra was composed in China, in Chinese language. Almost certainly using the translation of the Sūtra (T223) and or the Upadeśa i.e. commentary (T1509) produced in 402-404 CE, by a committee headed by the Kushan monk Kumārajīva.

Transcription conventions.

  • [omitted akṣara/s]
  • added in error
  • –  marked spaced in the ms.
  • x space left for knots

(LPG 20v)

  1. paryāyeṇa śāradvatīputra bodhisatvo mahāsatvo dakṣiṇāṃ śodhayati | tat kasya hetoḥ atyantapariśuddhā śāradvatīputra bodhisatvasya mahāsatvasya dakṣiṇā | ta
  2. thā hi dāyakaḥ śāradvatīputra bodhi – – – – satvo mahāsatvaḥ kasya dāyakaḥ anekeṣāṃ kuśalānāṃ dharmāṇāṃ yad uta daśānāṃ kuśalānāṃ karmapa
  3. thānāṃ yāvad aṣṭādaśāveṇikānāṃ buddhadharmāṇāṃ | [Śāriputra] āha | kathaṃ yujyamāno bhagavan bodhisatvo mahāsatvaḥ prajñāpāramitāyāṃ yukta iti veditavyaḥ bhagavān āha |
  4. iha śāradvatīputra bodhisatvo mahā[sa]tvo rūpaśunyatāyāṃ yukto yukta iti vaktavyaḥ vedanāśunyatāyāṃ saṃjñāśunyatāyāṃ saṃskāraśunyatāyāṃ vijñānaśu
  5. nyatāyāṃ yukto yukta iti vaktavyaḥ // punar aparaṃ cakṣuḥśunyatāyāṃ yukto yukta iti vaktavyaḥ evaṃ śrotraghrāṇajihvākāyamanaḥśunyatāyāṃ
  6. yukto yukta iti vaktavyaḥ evaṃ rūpaśabdagandharasasparśadharmaśunyatāyāṃ yukto yukta iti vaktavyaḥ cakṣurdhātuśunyatāyāṃ rūpadhātuśunyatāyāṃ cakṣurvi
  7. jñānadhātuśunyatāyāṃ yukto yukta iti vaktavyaḥ evaṃ śrotradhātuśunyatāyāṃ śabdadhātuśunyatāyāṃ śrotravijñānadhātuśunyatāyāṃ ghrāṇadhātuśunyatāyāṃ ga
  8. ndhadhātuśunyatāyāṃ ghrāṇavijñānadhātuśunyatāyāṃ jihvādhātuśunyatāyāṃ rasadhātuśunyatāyāṃ jihvāvijñānadhātuśunyatāyāṃ kāyadhātuśunyatāyāṃ sparśadhā
  9. tuśunyatāyāṃ kāyavijñānadhātuśunyatāyāṃ manodhātuśunyatāyāṃ dharmadhātuśunyatāyāṃ manovijñānadhātuśunyatāyāṃ yukto yukta iti vaktavyaḥ duḥkhaśunyatā
  10. yāṃ samudayaśunyatāyāṃ nirodhaśunyatāyāṃ mārgaśunyatāyāṃ yukto yukta iti vaktavyaḥ skandhaśunyatāyāṃ dhātuśunyatāyāṃ āyatanaśunyatāyāṃ yukto yu
  11. kta iti vaktavyaḥ avidyāśunyatāyāṃ yukto yukta iti vaktavyaḥ saṃskāraśunyatāyāṃ vijñānaśunyatāyāṃ nāmarūpaśunyatāyāṃ

 (LPG 20r)

  1. ṣaḍāyatanaśunyatāyāṃ sparśaśunyatātāyāṃ vedanāśunyatāyāṃ tṛṣṇāśunyatāyām upādānaśunyatāyāṃ bhavaśunyatāyāṃ jātiśunyatāyāṃ jarāmaraṇaśunyatāyāṃ
  2. yukto yukta iti vaktavyaḥ sarvadharmaśunyatāyām [yukto yukta iti vaktavyaḥ] | ye kecit saṃjñāgatā[ḥ] saṃskṛtāsaṃskṛtā dharmāḥ sarveṣāṃ dharmāṇāṃ śunyatāyāṃ yukto x yukta iti vaktavyaḥ // punar aparaṃ śā
  3. radvatīputra bodhisatvo mahāsatvaḥ prajñāpāramitāyāṃ caran prakṛtiśunyatāyāṃ yukto yukta iti vaktavya evaṃ khalu śāradvatīputra bodhisatvo mahāsatvaḥ prajñāpārami
  4. tāyāṃ caran yukta iti vaktavyaḥ // sa ābhir daśa – – – bhiḥ śunyatābhiḥ prajñāpāramitāyāṃ caran na tāvad yukta iti vā ayukta i – -ti vā vaktavyaḥ tat kasya hetoḥ tathā
  5. hi sa na rūpaṃ yuktam iti vā ayuktam iti vā – – – – – samanupaśyati | na vedanāṃ na saṃjñān na saṃskārān na vijñānaṃ yuktam iti vā ayuktam iti vā samanupaśyati |
  6. na rūpam utpādadharmi vā nirodhadharmi vā samanupaśyati | na vedanāṃ na saṃjñān na saṃskārān na vijñānam utpādadharmi vā nirodhadharmi vā samanu x paśyati | na rūpaṃ saṃ
  7. kleśadharmi vā vyavadānadharmi vā samanupaśyati | na vedanāṃ na saṃjñāṃ na saṃskārān na vijñānaṃ saṃkleśadharmi vā vyavadānadharmi vā samanupaśyati | na rūpaṃ vedanayā
  8. sārdhaṃ samavasaratīti samanupaśyati | na vedanā saṃjñayā na saṃjñā saṃskārair na saṃskārā vijñānena sārdhaṃ samavasarantīti samanupaśyati | na vijñānaṃ saṃskāraiḥ sārdhaṃ
  9. samavasaratīti samanupaśyati | tat kasya hetoḥ tathā hi na sa kaści[d] dharmaḥ kenacid dharmeṇa sārdhaṃ samavasa x rati na visarati | // na yujyate na viyujyate prakṛti
  10. śunyatām upādāya | yā śāradvatīputra rūpaśunyatā na sā rūpaṃ yā vedanāśunyatā na sā vedanā | yā saṃjñāśunyatā na sā saṃjñā | – – – yā saṃskāraśu
  11. nyatā na te saṃskārā | yā vijñānaśunyatā na sā vijñānaṃ | tathā hi śāradvatīputra yā rūpaśunyatā na sā rūpayati | yā veda – – – nāśunyatā na sā


 (LPG 21v)

  1. [inset 3 or 4 Cx] vedayati | yā saṃjñāśunyatā na sā saṃjānāti | yā saṃskāraśunyatā na sābhisaṃskaroti | yā vijñānaśunyatā na sā vijānāti | ta – – – – –
  2. tkasya hetoḥ na hi śāradvatīputrānyad rūpam anyā śunyatā nānya[1] śunyatānyad rūpaṁ[2] rūpam eva śunyatā śunyataiva rūpaṁ2 evaṃ nānyā vedanānyā śunyatā | nānyā saṃjñā
  3. nānyā śunyatā | nānye saṃskārā anye[3] śunyatā | nānya[d] vijñānam anyā śunyatā | nānyaḥ[4] śunyatānyad vijñānaṃ | vijñānam eva śunyatā śunyataiva vijñānaṃ | yā śāradvatīputra śunya
  4. tā na sā utpadyate na nirudyate | na saṃkliṣyate na vyavadāyate | na hīyate na vardhate | nātītā nānāgatā na pratyutpannā yā notpadyate na nirudhya – – – – – – te |
  5. na saṃkliśyate na vyavadāyate | na hīyate na vardhate | nātītā nānāgatā na pratyutpannāḥ[5] na tatra rūpaṃ na vedanā na saṃjñā na saṃskārā nna[6] vijñānaṃ na cakṣur na śrotraṃ na ghrāṇaṃ
  6. na jihvā kāyo na manaḥ na rūpaṃ na śabdo na gandho na ra – – – – – – sa[7] na sparśo na dharmāḥ na tatra skandhā na dhātavo nāyatanāni na tatra cakṣurdhātur na rūpadhātur na cakṣurvijñānadhā
  7. turna śrotradhātur na śabdadhātur na śrotravijñānadhātuḥ na ghrāṇadhātur na gandhadhātur na ghrāṇavijñānadhātur na jihvādhātur na ra – – – – – –  sadhātur na jihvāvi
  8. jñānadhātuḥ na kāyadhātur na spraṣṭavyadhātur na – – – kāyavijñānadhātur na manodhātur na dharmadhātur na manovijñāna – – – – – – [dhā]tu(ḥ)r[8] na tatrāvidyā nā
  9. vidyānirodhaḥ na saṃskārā nna saṃskāranirodhaḥ na vijñānaṃ na vijñānanirodhaḥ na nāmarūpaṃ na nāmarūpanirodhaḥ na ṣaḍāyatanaṃ na ṣaḍāyatananirodhaḥ na sparśo na
  10. sparśanirodhaḥ na vedanā na vedanānirodhaḥ na tṛṣṇā na tṛṣṇānirodhaḥ nopādānaṃ nopādānanirodhaḥ na bhavo na bhavanirodhaḥ na jātir na jātinirodhaḥ na jarāmaraṇaṃ na
  11. jarāmaraṇanirodhaḥ na duḥkhaṃ na samudayo na nirodho na mārgaḥ na prāptir nābhisamayaḥ na srota – āpanno na srota – – – āpattiphalaṃ [na sakṛdāgāmī]


 (LPG 21r)

  1. [na sakṛdāgāmi]phalaṃ nānāgāmī nānāgāmiphalaṃ nārhan nārhatvaṁ na pratyekabodhir na pratyekabuddhaḥ na tatra mārgākārajñatā – – – – – – na bodhisatvaḥ na tatra – –
  2. – bodhir na buddhaḥ evaṃ khalu śāradvatīputra bodhisatvo mahāsatvaḥ prajñāpāramitāyāṃ caran yukta iti vaktavyaḥ sa evaṃ prajñāpāramitāyāṃ caran na dānapāramitā
  3. yāṃ yukta iti vā ayukta iti vā samanupaśyati | na śīlapāramitāyāṃ na kṣāntipāramitāyāṃ na vīryapāramitāyāṃ na dhyānapāramitāyāṃ na
  4. prajñāpāramitāyāṃ yukta iti vā ayukta iti vā samanupaśyati | na rūpaṃ yuktam iti vā ayuktam iti vā samanupaśyati | na vedanāṃ na saṃjñān na saṃskārān na vijñānaṃ
  5. yu x ktam iti vā ayuktam iti vā samanupaśyati | na cakṣur yuktam iti vā ayuktam iti vā samanupaśyati | na śrotraṃ na ghrāṇaṃ na jihvāṃ na kāyaṃ na mano yukta
  6. m iti vā ayuktam iti vā samanupaśyati | na rūpaṃ yuktam iti vā ayuktam iti vā samanupaśyati | na śabdaṃ na gandhaṃ na rasaṃ na sparśaṃ na dharmān na cakṣu
  7. rdhātuṃ yuktam iti vā ayuktam iti vā samanupaśyati | na rūpadhātuṃ na cakṣurvijñānadhātuṃ yāvan na ma – – nodhātuṃ na dharmadhātuṃ na manovijñānadhātuṃ yukta iti vā
  8. ayukta iti vā samanupaśyati | na smṛtyu – – pasthāneṣu yukta I x ti vā ayukta iti vā samanupaśyati | na samyakprahāṇeṣu na riddhipā
  9. deṣu nendriyeṣu na baleṣu na bodhyaṃgeṣu na mārge yukta iti vā ayukta iti vā samanupaśyati | yāvan na daśasu tathāgatabaleṣu na caturṣu vaiśāradyeṣu na
  10. catasṛṣu pratisaṃvitsu nāṣṭādaśasv āveṇikeṣu buddhadharmeṣu yukta iti vā ayukta iti vā samanupaśyati | yāvan na sarvajñatāyāṃ na sarvākārajñatāyāṃ
  11. yukta iti vā ayukta iti vā samanupaśyati | anenāpi śāradvatīputra paryāyeṇa bodhisatvo – – – mahāsatvaḥ prajñāpāramitāyāṃ yukto yukta iti vaktavyaḥ sarva


 (LPG 22v)

  1. dharmāyogāviyogatām (LPG 22v)



[1] i.e. nānyā

[2] Scribe writes aṃ for anusvāra twice.

[3] i.e. nānyā

[4] i.e. nānyā

[5] Passage repeated.

[6] i.e. na

[7] i.e. raso

[8] i.e. tur



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