Prajñāpāramitā Texts in Jingtai’s Catalogue (T 2148)

Jingtai’s Catalogue (T 2148; vol 55) uses a scheme that has many similarities to other catalogues, particular the catalogue produced by Yancong in 602 (T 2147). He employed a total of seven categories, the first three of which make up the “canon”.

1. 單本 – single translations (one original that was translated only once)

2. 重翻 – retranslations (one original that was translated several times).

Each of which was divided into sub-categories

  • 大乘經 – Mahāyāna sūtra
  • 大乘律 – Mahāyāna vinaya
  • 大乘論 – Mahāyāna commentary
  • 小乘經 – Hīnayāna sūtra
  • 小乘律 – Hīnayāna vinaya
  • 小乘論 – Hīnayāna commentary

3. 賢聖集傳 “Collection Traditions of the Saints” is a standalone category considered to be translations.

4. 別生 Separately produced, that is what Zacchetti calls “excerpts” and what I call “digests”. This category also has several subcategories.

  • 大乘別生 – Mahāyāna separately produced
  • 大乘別生抄 – Mahāyāna separately produced copies
  • 小乘別出生 – Hīnayāna separately produced
  • 小乘別生抄 – Hīnāyāna separately produced copies
  • 別集抄  Suspected as being spurious
  • 眾經別生 Miscellaneous separately produced scriptures

5. 眾經疑惑 Miscellaneous dubious scriptures

6. 眾經偽妄 Miscellaneous false scriptures

7. 闕本 – Missing texts. These were texts that Jingtai had reason to believe should exist, but which could not be found in his library.

The following Prajñāpāramitā text translations are listed

Single Translations

大乘經單本 (Mahāyāna Sūtra Single Translations).

  • 大般若波羅蜜多經 (六百卷一萬二千紙) 唐世玄奘於玉華譯 (181c21-22) Mahāprajñāpāramitā sūtra (600 scrolls; 12,000 sheets of paper) Xuanzang, T 220 completed in 663.
  • 摩訶般若波羅蜜經 (四十卷或三十卷六百十九紙) 後秦鳩摩羅什共僧叡等於長安逍遙園譯一名大品 (181c23-25) Mahāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra (30 or 40 scrolls; 619 pages) Later Jin, Kumārajīva with Sēngruì et al. in Chang’an, Xiaoyao Garden [Kumārajīva’s translation institute] one named “Great Section (大品)”. = T. 223.
  • 勝天王般若波羅蜜經 (七卷一百二十一紙) 陳世月支國王子婆首那於楊州譯(182b03-4) Devarāja-pravara-prajñāpāramitā trans Upaśuṇya
  • 仁王般若經 二卷(二十八紙) (183b04) Karunikaraja-prajnaparamita-sutra (27 pages)
  • 文殊師利說般若波羅蜜經 一卷(二十二紙) 梁天監年曼陀羅譯 (184a19-20) *Mañjuśrī-pratibhātu-prajñāpāramitā Sūtra. (1 scroll, 22 pages)
  • 般若多心經 (一卷一紙) (185a02) Gnosis Heart Sūtra (1 scroll; 1 page)

大乘論單本 Mahāyāna commentary Single Translations

  • 般若燈論 (十五卷二百四十二紙) 唐貞觀年波頗蜜多等於勝光寺譯 (185b21-2) Prajñāpradīpa-mūlamadhyamaka-vṛtti (15 scrolls, 242 pages) T 1566. Translation by Prabhākaramitra in 630-632
  • 金剛般若經論 (三卷四十七紙) 後魏世菩提留支譯 (185c17) Diamond Sūtra Commentary by Vasubandhu. Trans Bodhiruci 509.
  • 金剛般若論 (二卷僧佉菩薩造二十八紙) 隋大業年達摩 (185c25) Diamond Sūtra commentary by Asaṅga trans Dharmagupta 613.


  • 放光般若波羅蜜經 (三十卷 或二十卷四百六十紙) 晉元康元年無羅叉共竺叔蘭於陳留譯 (189b02-3) Shining Perfection of Wisdom Sūtra , possibly T221 by Mokṣala (291 CE)
  • 光讚般若波羅蜜經 (十卷或十五卷二百一十五紙) 晉太康年竺法護譯右二經同本異譯。(189b04-6) Bright Stotra Perfection of Wisdom Sutra, possibly  T222 《光讚經》a partial Large Sutra translation by Dharmarakṣa (286 CE)
  • 道行般若波羅蜜經 (十卷一百六十五紙) 後漢元和年支謙譯 (189b07-8) *Dharmacārya-prajñā-sūtra, T 224 (Lokakṣema)
  • 小品般若經 (十卷或八卷一百五十四紙) 後秦弘始年羅什譯 (189b11-12) T227 by Kumārajīva (1st Year of Hong, Later Qin, i.e. ca 400-1 CE) Usually dated 408 CE.
  • 金剛般若經 (一卷舍衛國十二紙) 後秦弘始年羅什譯 (192c19) Diamond Sūtra, Kumārajīva (also Later Qin, First Year of Hong) usually dates 402 CE.
  • 金剛般若波羅蜜經 (一卷婆伽婆十四紙) 後魏世菩提留支譯 (192c20-21) Bodhiruci, T236 509 CE.
  • 金剛般若經 (一卷祇樹林十四紙) 陳世真諦譯 (192c22) Paramārtha, T237 (562 CE)
  • 能斷金剛般若經 (一卷十九紙) 唐世玄奘譯 右四經同本異譯。(192c23-4) trans. Xuanzang (1 scroll, 19 pages) [seemingly separate from his magnum opus] Jingtai comments that this is the best of the four (右四) alternative translations.
  • 摩訶般若波羅蜜經鈔長安品 (五卷一名須菩提品一名長安品經八十三紙) 前秦建元年沙門曇摩埤共竺佛念譯 (196a08-10) – 5 scrolls, one named “Subhūti Section”, one named “Chang’an Section Sutra”; 83 pages)  trans Former Jin, 1st year of 建 (ca 343 CE), by  曇摩埤 *Dharmapriya with 竺佛念 Zhú Fóniàn = T 226?


  • 摩訶般若波羅蜜神呪經 (一卷) (197a02)
  • 般若波羅蜜神呪經 (一卷) (197a03)

These are the shen zhou texts mistakenly believed to be early, now lost translations of the Heart Sutra, the names trace back to three decades before Kumārajīva translated the Large Sutra (T 223), and the Heart Sutra as we know it copies passages from that text. So these can not be the same.

Suspected of being fake

  • 遺曰說般若經 (一卷) 後漢世支讖譯 (213b.03)
  • 道行般若經 (二卷) 晉世衛士度譯 (217c.21)

These could be translations by Lokakṣema (支婁迦讖;  fl. ca. 168-186). The first is possibly a version of  《佛說遺日摩尼寶經》 (T 350) while 《道行般若經》is the title of T224 translated in 179 CE and now widely considered to be an authentic translation by Lokakṣema.

Note that Jingtai does not list any missing translations of the Heart Sutra. He lists it as a single translation meaning that no other translations existed to his knowledge.


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